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( 2 ) The tail is lifted up but is shorter and the hero has turned his head backward. The ' Pagoda ' or Varaha was the standard gold coin of the Dakhan. No local gold coins of this kind are known though there are numerous types of copper coins which were most probably the issues of the provincial viceroys. These latter were perhaps issued in some provincial mint or by some impecunious viceroy or imitator. Eeverse : Three-line Nagari legend with rules between the lines. Hanuman appears on the coins of Vijayanagar in three different styles. ) His tail is sometimes arched over his head and curled up outwards in front of his face which looks forward. Bukka II is referred to as 4 the Hindu Sultan Kadam ' by Nikitin, a Russian who visited India in 1474 2 , and Sewell refers in its connection to the view that the dynasty had a Kadamba origin. During the last days of Harihara I or the early ones of Bukka I the viceroys on the wesfc coast were authorised to issue coins called ' Mangaiuru Gadyana ' and 4 Barakfiru Gadyfina 3 ' which were probably gold coins issued by the ' Gadis ' or outlying provinces. One right hand holds a damaruga (drum) while the 1 Bidie No. Some specimens show a distinctly better condition of art than others and the latter which bear more conventionalised figures are also of inferior metal. **t.imhha P.mrhahiii VM ;n ;t Templr, Mantapi, Lak^hmmara^imha Tempi* 1 Ikkt-M \ejioi i-s\ara Temple Suu it inn (iriirral Descnpt ion, Ihstoix ...
Fortunately, both gold and copper specimens have been known, and indicate that Vijayanagar was a sovereign State and that there was a varied currency used in the kingdom about the year 1350. 2 In all probability, this State acknowledged the suzerainty of Vijayanagar and played an important part in the hitter's foreign affairs. 383 mentions the common enmity of Kherla and Vijayanagar to the Bahamanis. The coins of Harihara and his successors throw some light on the archaic dress and ornaments which were worn by deities and by kings on ceremonial occasions. (Vi) ja ya Bu ka Ea ya Specimen in the Cambridge Museum. But the obverse of the coin with the dagger and no conch and the reverse without any dagger in the centre make the coin resemble the bull type of Harihara II more than the bull types of Devaraya 1.
The foundation of Vijayanagar, also called Vidyiinagara, is traditionally but incorrectly ascribed to Guru Vidyaranya who is said to have caused gold coins to pour down from heaven. The tail is clearly seen 2 to form an arch over the head and curl up in front. He was famous even in contemporary times as a military genius. The variety with the Kannada legend is undoubtedly his issue. The bull and dagger type is copied from a similar Chola type suggesting thereby that it might have been issued after the Chola country had become an integral part of the Empire.
Of these, the temple of Lakshminarasiiiiha and the damaged image )f Yoganarayana near it are all that remain. The temple has been studied in detail under the following heads : I. This he called the ( Karnataka ' kingdom owing to the spoken language of the people being Kannada. 6, but the legend reads : Sri Bu ka pa ra ya Bukka I was the hero, who more than anybody else, was responsible for the establishment ot the kingdom of Vijayanagar. His coins are very similar to those of Harihara I, though they show a little more care in die cutting. The Indian humped bull with long horns walking majestically with uplifted head has been a figure admired in Indian art and literature. The bull and crescent appear commonly on the Andhra and Choja coins, while the dagger, also present on the Chola and Chalukya issues, is a symbol of royalty.
There are two specimens in 1 Mysore Catalogue Draft : Vijayanagar, No. The head-dress consisted of kirltas or peaked caps more often of metal than of cloth, inlaid with precious stones and rising in ridges tier above tier.
The Nagari legend variety with the bordering dots and circle would appear to be later in date than the Kannada legend variety which is distinctly ruder. A remarkable feature of some of the coins of Harihara II and a few of his successors like Devaraya II is the evidence of milling. Krishna liaya's statue with his consorts in the temple at Tirupati 1 wears very nearly the same kind of dress. " This king was perhaps called Vijaya Bukka also, in which case the application to him of the name ' Ajarao ' by Nuniz 1 would be explained.
(.itneial 1 esci ipt mn, I Iistui \ , Outi i \".ie\\ ul the Ciarhha^nha, Outer View of the Msintapa Tin 1 Navaian^a, I'lllais, Ceilings . ailakshiiia, ( lai hhagnha, Dhvaja Stamhlia Pa) \ ,iti Ti'inijli- 1 larihai - Hai Temple Situation, (Jcueial inscription, Ui^torx Mam Trmple, Paek Vii'\\, Unsemerit, Wall, Tuuer, South and North Porches, Front Manta|)a, llaseineiit and iiailmi;^ . West Cell, South Porch, Conservation PAGE 32 33 34- Co 36 37 : SB 39 3 ( J 10 41 44 43-47 15 4G 47 47-49 47 48 49 49 50-03 60 5'J r3 53 54 55 56 Ill I'ACt R Taltfunda Tho Pranavesvara Temple ...